1.03.2008

The History of Reggae

History of ReggaeThe word "reggae" was coined around 1960 in Jamaica to identify a "ragged" style of dance music, that still had its roots in New Orleans rhythm'n'blues. However, reggae soon acquired the lament-like style of chanting and emphasized the syncopated beat. It also made explicit the relationship with the underworld of the "Rastafarians" (adepts of a millenary African faith, revived Marcus Garvey who advocated a mass emigration back to Africa), both in the lyrics and in the appropriation of the African nyah-bingi drumming style (a style that mimicks the heartbeat with its pattern of "thump-thump, pause, thump-thump"). Compared with rock music, reggae music basically inverted the role of bass and guitar: the former was the lead, the latter beat the typical hiccupping pattern. The paradox of reggae, of course, is that this music

The 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a recently estab. sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row".
The word as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by the vocal group the Maytals, but it was already being used in Kingston as the name of a slower dance and style of rocksteady. As singer Derrick Morgan has reminisced,[1]
"We didn't like the name rock steady, so I tried a different version of "Fat Man". It changed the beat again, it used the organ to creep. Bunny Lee, the producer, liked that. He created the sound with the organ and the rhythm guitar. It sounded like ‘reggae, reggae' and that name just took off. Bunny Lee started using the world [sic] and soon all the musicians were saying ‘reggae, reggae, reggae.'"
However, by Maytals' lead singer Toots Hibbert's account,[2]
"There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called 'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say 'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy. The girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said, 'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something that came out of my mouth. So we just start singing 'Do the reggay, do the reggay' and created a beat. People tell me later that we had given the sound it's name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records."

"Reggae, perhaps the most intense and stunning music to be heard anywhere, has until recently been a largely undocumented phenomenon, generally ignored or despised by the outside world while left to speak for itself by its Jamaican practitioners. Wilful obscurity was in any case always part of the reggae game, with records often released in tiny quantities with blank labels and, if labelled, torn off by sound system operators to prevent their identity falling into rival hands. Labels were in any case often mispelt or misleading and formal copyright or royalties were largely non existent. Many early Jamaican records are identifiable only by the matrix numbers stamped into the vinyl at the pressing plant.unique to Jamaica" is actually not Jamaican at all, having its foundations in the USA and Africa.

Reggae music was mainly popularized by Bob Marley (1), first as the co-leader of the Wailers, the band that promoted the image of the urban guerrilla with Rude Boy (1966) and that cut the first album of reggae music, Best Of The Wailers (1970); and later as the political and religious (rasta) guru of the movement, a stance that would transform him into a star, particularly after his conversion to pop-soul melody with ballads such as Stir It Up (1972), I Shot The Sheriff (1973) and No Woman No Cry (1974).

Reggae After MarleyWith the loss of its biggest name, reggae seemed to strike a slow period, when the music had no direction. That changed in the mid 1980s with the advent of dancehall. This was faster than reggae, the rebellious music of youth that also drew influences from American hip-hop.
Over the course of the next few years it took on its own colours and made its own stars, people like Buju Banton and Shaggy. One charge levelled at dancehall over the years has been its "slackness," or sexual content, and there has been plenty, as well as a lot of homophobia.
But dancehall has taken Jamaican music to a new level and found audiences around the world, with a big following in the U.S., where it competes with hip-hop, and artists like Sizzla are huge.
The old-style roots reggae has also become global, with reggae bands springing up all over, many of whom had achieved great critical success, like the African reggae of Lucky Dube or Alpha Blondy.

There have also been numerous ska revivals over the years, notably the Two Tone movement in England in the late 1970s, and the "third wave" of American ska bands in the 1990s, which included future stars No Doubt.

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1.02.2008

What is Reggae?

What is Reggae"Apa sih Reggae"

Reggae sendiri adalah kombinasi dari iringan tradisional Afrika, Amerika danBlues serta folk (lagu rakyat) Jamaika. Gaya sintesis ini jelas menunjukkan keaslian Jamaika dan memasukkan ketukan putus - putus tersendiri, strumming gitar ke arah atas, pola vokal yang 'berkotbah'dan lirik yang masih seputar tradisi religius Rastafari. Meski banyak keuntungan komersial yang sudah didapat dari reggae, Babylon (Jamaika), pemerintah yang ketat seringkali dianggap membatasi gerak namun bukanaspek politis Rastafarinya. "Reg-ay" bisa dibilang muncul dari anggapanbahwa reggae adalah style musik Jamaika yang berdasar musik soul Amerika namun dengan ritem yang 'dibalik' dan jalinan bass yangmenonjol. Tema yang diangkat emang sering sekitar Rastafari, protespolitik, dan rudie (pahlawan hooligan).

Bentuk yang ada sebelumnya (ska& rocksteady) kelihatan lebih kuat pengaruh musik Afrika -Amerika-nya walaupun permainan gitarnya juga mengisi 'lubang - lubang'iringan yang kosong serta drum yang kompleks. Di Reggae kontemporer,permainan drum diambil dari ritual Rastafarian yang cenderung mistisdan sakral, karena itu temponya akan lebih kalem dan bertitik beratpada masalah sosial, politik serta pesan manusiawi.

Reggae merupakan irama musik yang berkembang di Jamaika. Reggae mungkin jadi bekas di perasaan lebar ke menunjuk ke sebagian terbesar musik Jamaika, termasuk Ska, rocksteady, dub, dancehall, dan ragga. Barangkali istilah pula berada dalam membeda-bedakan gaya teliti begitu berasal dari akhir 1960-an. Reggae berdiri di bawah gaya irama yang berkarakter mulut prajurit tunggakan pukulan, dikenal sebagai "skank", bermain oleh irama gitar, dan pemukul drum bass di atas tiga pukulan masing-masing ukuran, dikenal dengan sebutan "sekali mengeluarkan". Karakteristik, ini memukul lambat dari reggae pendahuluan, ska dan rocksteady.Beberapa nama yang terkenal dalam dunia musik Reggae di Indomesia antara lain Tony Q, Steven & Coconuttreez, Joni Agung (Bali), New Rastafara, dan Heru "Shaggy Dog" (Yogyakarta).

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